DPDP Act 2023: Your Guide to India’s Data Privacy Revolution
Futurism presents a comprehensive insight into the Digital Personal Data Protection Act, 2023 (DPDPA) and its potential impacts on organizations.
The Digital Personal Data Protection Act, 2023 (DPDPA), signifies a pivotal shift in India’s data protection domain, aiming to empower individuals while mandating organizations to handle personal data responsibly. This legislation comes as a reflection of the increasingly digital economy, where data privacy has become paramount. Here’s a guidebook to help you break down the essentials of the DPDPA Act 2023 and how it’s set to reshape the data privacy landscape in India.
The journey towards robust data protection began in 2017, with India’s Supreme Court declaring privacy as a fundamental right. A string of legislative drafts followed, culminating in 2023 with the enactment of the DPDP Act, replacing the previous drafts and bills proposed over the years.
Scope and Territory
The DPDPA applies not only to data collected and processed within India but also has a broader reach extending to data processed outside India, if related to activities within the country. Some exemptions include personal data used for personal or domestic purposes and publicly available data.
Scope and Territory
A cornerstone of the DPDP Act is the emphasis on explicit consent from individuals whose data is being processed. Furthermore, new terminologies have been introduced including Data Fiduciaries who decide how personal data is used, and Consent Managers who assist individuals in managing their consent. For children under 18 and individuals with disabilities, a guardian’s consent is necessary for data processing.
Processing Outside India
Rights of Data Principals
The Act empowers individuals, termed as Data Principals, with rights to information, grievance redressal, correction, deletion, and nomination. These rights ensure that individuals have control over their personal data and can seek redress if their data is mishandled.
Notable Features and Penalties
The DPDPA mandates Data Fiduciaries to implement reasonable security measures to prevent personal data breaches. Failing to uphold the Act’s provisions can result in hefty penalties, ranging up to INR 250 crore, depending on the nature of the violation.
Data Protection Board
A significant aspect of the DPDPA is the establishment of the Data Protection Board of India, responsible for enforcing the Act, identifying non-compliances, and ensuring adherence to the law.
DPDPA vs. GDPR
While there are similarities with the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), the DPDPA has its unique features. For instance, the Act covers both digital and non-digital data (if digitized later), introduces an additional right to nominate, and mandates notices in 22 Indian languages besides English.
Achieving compliance with the DPDPA could be staged over 6 months to 2 years, encompassing a thorough data privacy assessment, formulation of data privacy frameworks, execution of Data Privacy Impact Assessments (DPIAs), and deploying Privacy Enabling Technologies (PETs).
Gear Up for Compliance
Organizations are advised to familiarize themselves with the law, carry out extensive data inventory, establish a consent management framework, perform risk assessments, and ensure valid contracts with data processors to gear up for compliance with the DPDPA.
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